Apache Iceberg is an open table format for huge analytic datasets. Iceberg adds tables to compute engines including Spark, Trino, PrestoDB, Flink and Hive using a high-performance table format that works just like a SQL table.
Iceberg avoids unpleasant surprises. Schema evolution works and won’t inadvertently un-delete data. Users don’t need to know about partitioning to get fast queries.
- Schema evolution supports add, drop, update, or rename, and has no side-effects
- Hidden partitioning prevents user mistakes that cause silently incorrect results or extremely slow queries
- Partition layout evolution can update the layout of a table as data volume or query patterns change
- Time travel enables reproducible queries that use exactly the same table snapshot, or lets users easily examine changes
- Version rollback allows users to quickly correct problems by resetting tables to a good state
Reliability and performance¶
Iceberg was built for huge tables. Iceberg is used in production where a single table can contain tens of petabytes of data and even these huge tables can be read without a distributed SQL engine.
- Scan planning is fast – a distributed SQL engine isn’t needed to read a table or find files
- Advanced filtering – data files are pruned with partition and column-level stats, using table metadata
Iceberg was designed to solve correctness problems in eventually-consistent cloud object stores.
- Works with any cloud store and reduces NN congestion when in HDFS, by avoiding listing and renames
- Serializable isolation – table changes are atomic and readers never see partial or uncommitted changes
- Multiple concurrent writers use optimistic concurrency and will retry to ensure that compatible updates succeed, even when writes conflict
Iceberg has been designed and developed to be an open community standard with a specification to ensure compatibility across languages and implementations.